Discover how fearless females changed the world of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) with Gale’s Science In Context*.
As an attending anesthesiologist she developed the Apgar System allowing doctors or nurses to quickly determine if a baby is at risk for complications and needs attention . She focused her career on advocating for good prenatal care and ensuring proper care for newborns. Apgar laid the foundation for perinatology and the programs she developed are credited for our understanding of risks to a developing baby.
As a biologist, she researched melanoma and the effects of drugs on cancer cells, creating the foundational understanding that chemotherapy is built on. In addition to her work as a cell biologist she initiated programs to encourage minorities and women to pursue the sciences. As an educator and administrator, she worked to raise funds for scientific research and foster educational opportunities for minorities in the sciences.
She was the first African-American women admitted into the astronaut training program and the first in space completing an eight (8)-day mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. After leaving the astronaut program, Dr. Jemison focused on the advancement of education and science. She founded the Earth We Share International Science Camp that focuses on the impacts of science and technology on society and leads initiatives to continue to advance space travel.
American marine biologist, author, and conservationist alerted the world to the environmental impact of misusing fertilizers and pesticides. Her book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. Her work drew praise from the public and President John F. Kennedy and led to a presidential commission. Her work led to more than 40 bills and amendments to federal environmental laws.
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Contributed by Library Specialist William Heinrich and Gale, a Cengage Company.